Tag Archives: body systems

Chapter 6: Distribution of Materials

tube worm respiratory system

Image Source and information about the White Christmas Tree Worm

This chapter looks at three systems: circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems.

The Circulatory System: Once food has been digested, these nutrients needs to be distributed to every cell within the body to enable cellular respiration to occur. These nutrients, as well as hormones, waste products (CO2 and urea), salts and heat are transported in the circulatory system. The circulatory system of mammals includes  a four-chambered heart, arteries, veins and capillaries that allow the movement of blood to every cell within the body.

The Respiratory System: The mammalian respiratory system includes the lungs, trachea, bronchi and alveoli that allow the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the internal blood supply and the external environment. Insects have an open respiratory system in which the air and the internal cells are in close contact, oxygen entering through spiracles and passing in to branching tubes within the organism. Don’t get confused between cellular respiration and breathing! Cellular respiration is the process that converts glucose and oxygen to energy within the cells. Oxygen is supplied to those cells by the red blood cells, which carry oxyhaemoglobin to cells and remove carbon dioxide from cells.

The Excretory System: Our kidneys are part of our excretory system, to remove nitrogenous wastes from our body. The nephron is the functioning unit that removes urea from the blood and allows water, nutrientsand salts to be re-absorbed to the body. Ureters are the tubes that carry urea from the kidneys to the bladder and urine leaves the body via the urethra.


Area of Study 2: Functioning Organisms


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During the two week break make sure you read through Chapter 5 and start answering the Chapter review questions. Take study notes, including definitions of key terms and important concepts. You could also draw concept maps for each of the digestive, respiratory, excretory and circulatory systems. Compare the nutrition and transport systems in plants and animals. You may find the following sites helpful:

BBC Human Body Interactives

National Geographic Human Body

Incredible Human Machine