This chapter looks at three systems: circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems.
The Circulatory System: Once food has been digested, these nutrients needs to be distributed to every cell within the body to enable cellular respiration to occur. These nutrients, as well as hormones, waste products (CO2 and urea), salts and heat are transported in the circulatory system. The circulatory system of mammals includes a four-chambered heart, arteries, veins and capillaries that allow the movement of blood to every cell within the body.
- A YouTube video of How the Circulatory System works.
- Links to more great resources about the Human Body Systems (compiled by Jackie Miers).
- How Stuff Works – How your Heart Works.
- Video of heart and circulatory system here.
- KLB Science Interactivities have produced a clever quiz on the heart and circulatory system.
- More great Human Body stuff from National Geographic here.
- Virtual microscope images of the circulatory system from the Indiana University Bloomington.
- Components of blood
- Virtual microscope slide of blood
- Virtual microscope images of arteries, veins and capillaries showing tissue types.
The Respiratory System: The mammalian respiratory system includes the lungs, trachea, bronchi and alveoli that allow the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the internal blood supply and the external environment. Insects have an open respiratory system in which the air and the internal cells are in close contact, oxygen entering through spiracles and passing in to branching tubes within the organism. Don’t get confused between cellular respiration and breathing! Cellular respiration is the process that converts glucose and oxygen to energy within the cells. Oxygen is supplied to those cells by the red blood cells, which carry oxyhaemoglobin to cells and remove carbon dioxide from cells.
- Respiration – University of Melbourne animation of lung structure showing alveoli.
- Habits of the Heart – Lung Structure from the Science Museum of Minnesota.
- Video of the Respiratory System
- Human Anatomy Animations of the respiratory and circulatory sytems from Bioanime. This site includes animations of all the human tissue types, including the different types of white blood cells.
- Human Anatomy Online – interactive diagrams of all the systems, including nervous, skeletal and reproductive.
The Excretory System: Our kidneys are part of our excretory system, to remove nitrogenous wastes from our body. The nephron is the functioning unit that removes urea from the blood and allows water, nutrientsand salts to be re-absorbed to the body. Ureters are the tubes that carry urea from the kidneys to the bladder and urine leaves the body via the urethra.
- Great interactive animation showing structure and function of the kidneys.
- The nephron – structure and function.
- The Kidney Quiz from Zerobio.