Biological Macromolecules – Carbohydrates

Last week we started looking at the large molecules that make up all living organisms – carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Due to their size, number of monomers and different combinations of monomers and how they are joined, there are huge number of these macromolecules, so they are grouped according to common characteristics. All carbohydrates are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms and have the general formula (CH2O)n. How many carbon atoms do you think triose, pentose and hexose have?

Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose

Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose

Polysaccharides: chitin (insect exoskeletons and fungi cell walls), cellulose and glycogen

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